Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that usually begins in childhood and can last into adulthood. ADHD is comprised of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Patients with ADHD may have difficulty sustaining attention, they might be in constant motion, and impulsive whereby they often interrupt others. ADHD can primarily be inattentive, hyperactive, or a combined form which includes inattention and hyperactivity. ADHD affects many areas of life that include education, productivity, relationships, marriages, family togetherness, and criminality.

              Approximately 5% of children and teens worldwide are affected by ADHD (Song et al., 2021). Children with ADHD struggle in school and are at a higher risk of poor academic performance and are often labelled as defiant children in school putting them at a higher risk for suspension or even expulsion. Children with ADHD struggle with relationships in school and at home. Behavioral issues such as fighting, defiance, truancy, experimenting with substance use, and negative driving outcomes are not uncommon. Studies have shown that ADHD leads to a lower quality of life for patients Peasgood et al., 2016). Sleep deficit is common among ADHD patients which can lead to fatigue.

              Adults tend to have less hyperactivity compared to children. Adults will mostly present with inattention, poor organization, difficulty functioning at home and at work. Academic failure, job loss, and high divorce rates are not uncommon in adults who have ADHD. There are several approaches to manage ADHD such as therapy, and the use of stimulant or non-stimulant medication. The first step is discussing your concerns with a clinician to determine if you have ADHD and then formulate a treatment plan to help manage the symptoms.


Peasgood, T., Bhardwaj, A., Biggs, K., Brazier, J. E., Coghill, D., Cooper, C. L., Daley, D., De Silva, C., Harpin, V., Hodgkins, P., Nadkarni, A., Setyawan, J., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2016). The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 25(11), 1217–1231.

Song, P., Zha, M., Yang, Q., Zhang, Y., Li, X., & Rudan, I. (2021). The prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of global health, 11, 04009.

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